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Principles of
Principles of Prolotherapy

References and Links

  1. Alfredson H, Ohberg L. Neovascularisation in chronic painful patellar tendinosis—promising results after sclerosing neovessels outside the tendon challenge the need for surgery. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthosc. 2005 Mar; 13(2):74–80.
  2. Banks AR. A rationale for prolotherapy. J Orthop Med. 1991; 13(3):54–59.
  3. Centeno CJ, et al. Fluoroscopically guided cervical prolotherapy for instability with blinded pre and post radiographic reading. Pain Physician. 2005; 8:67–72. ISSN 1533-3159.
  4. Clark RAF, ed. The Molecular and Cellular Biology of Wound Repair 2nd ed. New York: Plenum Press. 1996.
  5. Clarke Holmes F, Sevier TL. Dextrose prolotherapy for anterior knee pain: a randomized prospective double-blind placebo-controlled study. Clin J Sports Med 2004 Sept; 14(5):311.
  6. Cusi M, et al. The use of prolotherapy in the sacroiliac joint. Br J Sports Med Published online Apr 9, 2008; doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2007.042044.
  7. Dagenais S, Haldeman S, Wooley JR. Intraligamentous injection of sclerosing solutions (prolotherapy) for spinal pain: a critical review of the literature. Spine J. 2005 May–Jun; 5(3):310–328.
  8. Dagenais S, et al. Side effects and adverse events related to intraligamentous injection of sclerosing solutions (prolotherapy) for back and neck pain: a survey of practitioners. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2006 Jul; 87(7):909–913.
  9. Hakala RV. Prolotherapy (proliferation therapy) in the treatment of TMD. Cranio 2005 Oct; 23(4):283–288.
  10. Hooper RA et al. Case series on chronic whiplash related neck pain treated with intraarticular zygapophysial joint regeneration injection therapy. Pain Physician 2007 Mar; 10(2):313–318. ISSN 1533-3159.
  11. Khan SA, et al. Dextrose prolotherapy for recalcitrant coccygodynia. J Orthop Surg 2008 Apr; 16(1):27–29.
  12. Kim HS, et al. Comparison between the effect of local steroid injection and prolotherapy on iliac crest pain syndrome. J Korean Acad Rehabil Med. 2007 Feb; 31(1):20–24.
  13. Miller MR, Mathews RS, Reeves KD. Treatment of painful advanced internal lumbar disc derangement with intradiscal injection of hypertonic dextrose. Pain Physician 2006 Apr; 9(2):115–121. ISSN 1533-3159.
  14. Ravin TH, Cantieri MS, Pasquarello GJ. Principles of Prolotherapy Denver, Colo: American Academy of Musculoskeletal Medicine. 2008. ISBN 978-1-933171-00-5.
  15. Reeves KD, Hassanein KM. Long-term effects of dextrose prolotherapy for anterior cruciate ligament laxity. Altern Ther Health Med 2003; 9:58–62.
  16. Stall JB, et al. Injection therapy for subacute and chronic low back pain: an updated Cochrane review. Spine 2009 Jan; 34(1):49–59.
  17. Tomasek JJ, et al. Myofibroblasts and mechano-regulation of connective tissue remodeling. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2002;3:348-363.
  18. Topol GA, Reeves, KD, Hassanein MK. Efficacy of dextrose prolotherapy in elite male kicking-sport athletes with chronic groin pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005; 86:697–702.
  19. Wilkinson HA. Injection therapy for enthesopathies causing axial spine pain and "the failed back syndrome": a single blinded, randomized and cross-over study. Pain Physician 2005; 8:167–173. ISSN 1533-3159.
  20. Yelland MJ, et al. Prolotherapy injections, saline injections, and exercises for chronic low-back pain: a randomized trial. Spine 2004 Jan; 29(1):9–16.
  21. Zeisig E, et al. A 2-year sonographic follow-up after intratendinous injection therapy in patients with tennis elbow. Br J Sports Med. Published online Jul 29, 2008; doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2008.049874.
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